Today in school, we were discussing about contraception, in Islam. I was wondering what Islam says about contraception. Anything from the Quran or any hadiths for this topic.
A Muslim has four sources of knowledge to obtain answers to the questions pertaining to various aspects of human life. These sources are: 1. The Holy Qur'an; 2. Sayings (hadith) and acts (Sunnah) of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him); 3. Consensus of the companions of prophet (peace be upon him) or Muslim community’s agreed upon matters. 4. The views of the leaders of juristic schools qualified to interpret the teachings of Islam which is based on above mentioned three. Quran does not speak of contraception. There are, however, some Qur'anic verses which prohibit infanticide. These verses are: وَلاَ تَقْتُلُواْ أَوْلاَدَكُم مِّنْ إمْلاَقٍ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُكُمْ وَإِيَّاهُمْ Kill not your children on a plea of want; We provide sustenance for you and for them. (6:151)
وَلاَ تَقْتُلُواْ أَوْلادَكُمْ خَشْيَةَ إِمْلاقٍ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُهُمْ وَإِيَّاكُم إنَّ قَتْلَهُمْ كَانَ خِطْءًا كَبِيرًا
Kill not your children for fear of want: We shall provide sustenance for them as well as for you. Verily the killing of them is a great sin. 17:31 The people of ignorance would not allow their daughters to inherit from them, and some would even kill their daughters lest they make them poorer. Allah forbade that by saying do not kill your children. Contraception does not amount to killing a human being. Therefore these verses have no relations with the contraception. It will be clear in the discussion of up coming hadiths. Contraception was not existed with its hi-tech method like today in the time of the prophet (peace be upon him). Rather companions (RA) used to use the word called “Azl”. In simple English its meaning is coitus interruptus that is withdrawal or the pull-out method. It is a birth-control technique in which a man withdraws his penis from a woman’s vagina prior to ejaculation during intercourse, with the semen being ejaculated out side of the vagina. From the hadith books it is evident that some companions used to apply Azl while prophet was living and he did not forbid them and in the same time other hadiths discourage the method of using Azl. Let’s look at some hadiths:
The Hadiths that discourage contraception
The hadiths that do not prohibit contraception
(1) Narrated Jabir: We used to practice coitus interrupt us during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle . (Bukhari, Book #62, Hadith #135) (2) Narrated Jabir: We used to practice coitus interrupt us while the Quran was being revealed. Jabir added: We used to practice coitus interrupt us during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle while the Quran was being Revealed. (Bukhari Book #62, Hadith #136 (3) Abu Sirma said to Abu Sa'id al Khadri (Allah he pleased with him): 0 Abu Sa'id, did you hear Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) mentioning al-'azl? He said: Yes, and added: We went out with Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) on the expedition to the Bi'l-Mustaliq and took captive some excellent Arab women; and we desired them, for we were suffering from the absence of our wives, (but at the same time) we also desired ransom for them. So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing 'azl (Withdrawing the male sexual organ before emission of semen to avoid-conception). But we said: We are doing an act whereas Allah's Messenger is amongst us; why not ask him? So we asked Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), and he said: It does not matter if you do not do it, for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born. (Muslim, Book #008, Hadith #3371) (4) Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (Allah be pleased with him) reported: We took women captives, and we wanted to do 'azl with them. We then asked Allah's Messen- ger (may peace be upon him) about it, and he said to us: Verily you do it, verily you do it, verily you do it, but the soul which has to be born until the Day of judgment must be born. (Muslim, Book #008, Hadith #3373) (5) Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was asked about 'azl, whereupon he said: The child does not come from all the liquid (sermen) and when Allah intends to create anything nothing can prevent it (from coming into existence). (Muslim, Book #008, Hadith #3381) (6) Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (Allah be pleased with him) reported: Mention was made about al-'azl in the presence of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), whereupon he said: Why any one of you practices it? (He did not say: One of you should not do it), for there is no created soul, whose creator is not Allah. (Muslim Book #008, Hadith#3380) (7) Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) reported that a man came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: I have a slave-girl who is our servant and she carries water for us and I have intercourse with her, but I do not want her to conceive. He said: Practice 'azl, if you like, but what is decreed for her will come to her. The person stayed back (for some time) and then came and said: The girl has become pregnant, whereupon he said: I told you what was decreed for her would come to her. (Muslim, Book #008, Hadith #3383) (8) Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) reported: We used to practice 'azl while the Qur'an was revealed (during the days when the Holy Prophet was alive). (Muslim Book #008, Hadith #3386) (9) Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) reported: We used to practice 'azl during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). This (the news of this practice) reached Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him), and he did not forbid us. (Muslim Book #008, Hadith #3388)
Above mentioned all the hadiths are taken from Sahih Bukhari and Muslim. There are more hadiths on this topic recorded in various hadiths books but we think it will be sufficient for one by pondering over these hadiths to understand the subject matter. When we shed some light on the hadiths of Abu Sai’d Khudri (RA) we see the phrases of hadiths are “better not to do it”, “should not do it” etc, none of the hadith is using the clear phrase “Do not do it”. In the other hand Jabir’s (RA) hadith is clear on the subject that we used to do it when prophet (peace be upon him) was living with us and prophet (peace be upon him) knew about it, even prophet gave permission to do it. If it was something impermissible in Islam prophet (peace be upon him) definitely would have prohibited it or at least a verse would have been revealed describing its prohibition, because when some companion was using the azl, same time quran was been revealed also; but no verse came down. Therefore you cannot say contraception is haram. To say something haram (forbidden) one need a clear instruction from Quran or Hadith, which is absent in this matter. Medical science was not advance in the time of prophet (peace be upon him); hence there was no safe method for contraception. It was obvious that a woman can fall pregnant in the first instant when penis is been inserted in to the vagina and yet it was ejaculated out side. No statement has been reported from any Islamic jurists regarding the prohibition of Azl. The most detailed analysis of Islamic permission of contraception was made by the great leader of the Shafi'i School of jurisprudence, al-Ghazzali (1058-1111). He discussed this issue in his great work, Ihya' 'ulum al-Din (The revival of Religious Science), in the chapter on biology in religion. Al-Ghazzali stated that there was no basis for prohibiting 'azl. For prohibition in Islam was possible only by adducing an original text (nass, an explicit provision in the Qur'an or hadith) or by analogy with a given text. In the case of contraception, there was no such text, nor was there any principle on which to base prohibition. In his view, coitus interruptus was permitted absolutely (mubah) and this permission could be ratified by analogical reasoning. A man could refrain from marriage; or marry but abstain from mating or have sexual intercourse but abstain from ejaculation inside the vagina--'azl. Although it was better to marry, have intercourse, and have ejaculation inside the vagina, abstention from these was by no means forbidden or unlawful. Encouragement to have Children The general purpose of marriage in Islam is the sexes can provide company to one another, procreate legitimate children & live in peace & tranquility to the commandments of Allah. Marriage serves as a means to emotional & sexual gratification and as a means of tension reduction.
According to Imams Abu Hanifa, Ahmad ibn Hanbal & Malik ibn Anas, marriage in Islam is recommendatory, however in certain individuals it becomes Wajib or obligatory. Imam Shafi considers it to Nafl or Mubah (preferable). The general opinion is that if a person, male or female fears that if he/she does not marry they will commit fornication, then marriage becomes “Wajib”. There are many hadiths which encourage the people to get married and have children. A great emphasis has been given towards the marriage in following famous hadith: “Marry loving and fertile woman. Through you I will compete with the nations for superiority in numbers. (Abu Dawud)” You would not know whether a woman is fertile or not unless you get married. Before you start having children one after another you need to consider the circumstances around you. Whether you can cope with it or not, mother’s health and children’s well being and their education etc should be the criteria to go forward with more children. Therefore this hadith got noting to do with Azl. This hadith is encouraging people to get married, not ordering anybody to get married. Otherwise marriage would have been obligatory on everyone. Islam does not recognize any relationship whatsoever outside of marriage.
Look at the following hadith: Narrated 'Abdullah: We were with the Prophet while we were young and had no wealth whatever. So Allah's Apostle said, "O young people! Whoever among you can marry, should marry, because it helps him lower his gaze and guard his modesty (i.e. his private parts from committing illegal sexual intercourse etc.), and whoever is not able to marry, should fast, as fasting diminishes his sexual power." (Bukhari, book 62 hadith 4) For various reasons a person may abstain from marrying and these reasons may vary time to time and place to place. Of-course circumstances are the big questions as well. So, one should not marry if he does not possess the means to maintain a wife and future family or if he has no sex drive. If one is married and circumstances are not in favour of him to have children can he stay away from having more children or other word can he use the method of contraception? Scholars considered the following reasons or any other reason similar to them that one may use the reversible contraception. Reasons are: (A) Physical weakness. (B) Sickness. (C) The wife maintaining her beauty or figure for the sake of her husband. (D) The couple being on a journey or in a distant land. (E) Adverse political conditions, e.g. children are forcibly separated from their parents as is advocated by communism; etc. (F) The couple decide to separate in the near future. (G) The wife is an immoral person.
Permanent contraception is permissible only if the woman's life is in danger or her health is seriously threatened. Otherwise not, because in this case, one is changing the object of marriage. Object of marriage is to have sex and the sex is to insert the penis in to the vagina. It will be achieved when ejaculation take place inside the vagina. So if there is no real danger you cannot stop this process permanently, which Allah has ordained for you.
BROTHER DO PRAY FOR ME! TILL END OF UR LIFE. I REALLY NEEDS UR PRAYERS.
MAY ALLAH HELPS YOU.