Here is another translation of the verse you have quoted:
ثُمَّ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُكُم مِّن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ فَهِيَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً وَإِنَّ مِنَ الْحِجَارَةِ لَمَا يَتَفَجَّرُ مِنْهُ الأَنْهَارُ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَشَّقَّقُ فَيَخْرُجُ مِنْهُ الْمَاء وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَهْبِطُ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللّهِ وَمَا اللّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ
‘Even after that, your hearts become as hard as rocks, or even harder, for there are rocks from which streams spring out, and some from which water comes when they split open, and others which fall down in awe of Allah: He is not unaware of what you do.’ (Al-Baqara: 74).
One more; this time by Arthur J Arberry - appointed Professor of Arabic at London University in 1946. Arberry was not a Muslim:
‘Then your hearts become hardened thereafter and are like stones, or even yet harder; for there are stones from which rivers come gushing, and others split, so that water issues from them, and others crash down in the fear of God. And God is not heedless of the things you do.’
All translation is a ‘betrayal’ to some degree. Nevertheless the translator has the power to choose which element of the source text to ‘betray,’ and which to honour faithfully: to decide whether to use the literal words, or to express the deeper meaning by some other means.
By way of example, take the following:
‘But Jesus said, Suffer little children, and forbid them not, to come unto me: for of such is the kingdom of heaven’. (Matthew 19:14) - King James Bible version.
Taken literally, this translation is saying that children have to experience pain before they can be allowed to approach Jesus. I was brought up a Christian, and took part in many a debate with agnostics and atheists. I’ve lost count of the number of times that people – taking the words ‘suffer little children’ literally – have said to me that Jesus condoned child abuse!
However, the true spirit of this statement is that children should be allowed freely to approach him, and should not be hindered. By ‘betraying’ the literal word ‘suffer’ one arrives at the true meaning of this text:
‘But Jesus said, “Let the little children come to me and do not hinder them, for to such belongs the kingdom of heaven.”’ – English standard version.
It is perfectly possible to be faithful to the meaning and spirit of a text, provided one knows when to ‘betray’ the literal wording, and when to leave it alone; essentially, the role of the translator is to exercise this judgement. Translation systems, such as Google, cannot exercise this judgement!
Arbery is using the word ‘God’ because he is writing to an English speaking audience, for whom the word has meaning.
There is no equivalent word for ‘God’ in Arabic, and so the Qur’an in its original classical Arabic does not contain that word. Not at all.
An Arabic speaking Muslim uses the word ‘Allah’ to express the One Lord. An Arabic speaking Christian also uses the word ‘Allah’ to express the One Lord.
When an Arabic speaking Christian reads the Qur’an in his native tongue he knows perfectly well that the Lord who is speaking to him (Allah) is the very Lord of Adam, of Noah, of Moses, of Abraham, of David, of Solomon, of Jesus, of Mohammed, of you, of me and of everyone else. Amen!