Jazakallah,I'm realy enjoying you people.Please,I want to know more about fiqh.
Asalaam o alaikum, Fiqh is a very extensive subject, and one that can cause unrest and controversy. I will explain the basics.
Fiqh means, deep understanding, full comprehension, knowledge.
Fiqh is Islamic Jurisprudance, a code of conduct( shariah) initialised from The Quran and supplemented by traditions (sunnah). These findings of laws and principals are implemented as the rulings by the Islamic Jurists, scholars of Jurisprudance, Fiqh.
Fiqh deals with rituals, morals, and social legislation. The four schools of thoughts, ( madhabs) all collected and implemented these rulings.
These rulings consider a persons actions regarding to Allahs rules, laws as set down in The Quran, and the actions of Muhammad, saw, who implemented them ,thus became the example to follow, ( haddiths)/(sunnah). The actions being " required", "sinful", "recommended", "dissaproved", and "neutral".
Quran and Sunnah, are the basis of Shariah. The Shariah uses the consensus of the community (ijma) modern day era use of anology (qiyas) and weigh up harms and benefits of new topics (istismah). Thus Fiqh is not regarded as sacred. Thus also the four schools of thought (madhabs)will differ in opinion.
Sunni sect, regarding the 4 madhabs, are thoughts frozen in time, upholding what most consider to be universal teachings concerning human nature/ life, which in essence has not changed. Thus the argument is , should Fiqh be modernised, re-newed to corporate new issues.??? Haddiths and Quran deal with issues that cover time, place, culture, based on justice, equality and respect. and is contextual proof, universal.
Early Jurists used The Quran, Sunnah, Ijma, Qiyas. Later Jurists included laws of previous prophets, continuity, extended anolgy, blocking by means, customs and sayings of the Sahabahs.
In essence, it is up to us as individuals to seek the truth and the guidance on offer. Stick to Quran and Sunnah, or include the Shariah rulings. Regarding the 4 madhabs, we can learn from all. To follow just one madhab and disregard the others would be deemed futile. As all madhabs have similar Haddiths and and expand upon each other. After all, the origins of the madhabs came from the source, Muhammad, saw.
Al-Khattabi said in "Gharib al-hadith": "Difference of opinion in religion is of three kinds: - In affirming the Creator and His Oneness: to deny it is kufr (disbelief); - In His attributes and will: to deny them is innovation; - In the different rulings of the branches of the law (ahkam al-furu`): Allah has made them mercy and generosity for the scholars, and that is the meaning of the hadith: "Difference of opinion in my Community is a mercy." Al-Jarrahi cited it in "Kashf al-khafa" 1:64 #153.