Why was Adam and his wife expelled from paradise for breaking the command of Allah, and Iblis was given respite?
Assalamualaikum. Allah Subhanah created Hadrat Adam (a.s.) and his companion Hawwa and by His will and plan He always intended to send them to earth to try man in good and evil conditions for a period of one life-time.
His reason for doing this was to see who amongst men is the best in deeds.
Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 2 Surah Baqarah verse 30:
30 Behold thy Lord said to the Angels: "I will create a vicegerent on earth." They said "Wilt thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood? Whilst we (the Angels) do celebrate Thy praises and glorify Thy Holy (Name)?" He (Allah) said: "I know what ye know not."
By this verse, we understand that even before Allah Subhanah created Hadrat Adam (a.s.), He Declared unto the Angels that He will create a 'vicegerent' on EARTH!!!
Iblees is not the reason why man was sent on this earth. Allah Subhanah had it as part of His Plan so that He may honor those who pass the trial and take retribution from those who fail it.
Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 7 Surah Aaraaf verses 19-23
19 (Allah Subhanah said): "O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden (of Eden) and enjoy (its good things) as ye wish: but approach not this tree or ye run into harm and transgression."
20 Then began the Shaytaan to whisper suggestions to them bringing openly before their minds all their shame that was hidden from them (before): he (the Shaytaan) said "Your Lord only forbade you this tree lest ye should become Angels or such beings as live for ever."
21 And he swore to them both that he was their sincere adviser.
22 So by deceit he brought about their fall (from the Favor of their Lord): when they tasted of the tree their shame became manifest to them and they began to sew together the leaves of the Garden over their bodies. And their Lord called unto them: "Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you that the Shaytaan was an avowed enemy unto you?"
23 They said: "O Our Lord! We have wronged our own souls: if Thou forgive us not and bestow not upon us Thy mercy we shall certainly be lost."
Thus from verse 30 of Surah Baqarah quoted initially, it is clear that Allah Subhanah Decreed and created man to live on this earth; but in His Supreme Wisdom, Allah Subhanah Decreed that the parents of man be put through a 'small' test in Paradise before man is sent to the earth to give his full and final exam....so that they may see and realize the guile, deceit, and lies their avowed enemy, the Shaytaan, will use and utilize against them to fulfill his described mission of taking a portion of man away from the Straight Path of their Lord Creator.
After the incident of eating from the tree in Paradise, Hadrat Adam (a.s.) and Hawwa sought forgiveness from their Allah Subhanah, and their Lord Most Merciful turned towards them in Mercy and forgave them their error. Only after forgiving them did He send them to earth to live their test ordained for a period of one life-time.
Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 2 Surah Baqarah verses 37-39:
37 Then learnt Adam from his Lord words of inspiration and his Lord turned toward him; for He is Oft-Returning Most Merciful.
38 We said: "Get ye down all (Adam, Hawwa, and Iblees) from here; and if, as is sure, there comes to you Guidance from Me, whosoever follows My Guidance on them shall be no fear nor shall they grieve.
39 But those who reject faith and belie Our Signs, they shall be companions of the Fire; they shall abide therein."
Unlike mankind, Iblis is not sent for a test but is only given respite until the appointed time. JazakAllah
Salaam dearest brother, the additional information you supplied is all important and it all makes sense. I also see the initial 'test' that Allah Subhanah put Hadrat Adam and his wife through as twofold:
I see it as a mercy because He in His Absolute Wisdom demonstrated / warned Hadrat Adam and his wife of what to be beware of.
As Muslims, there is a lot to reflect on in these ayat which describe the early experiences of Hadrat Adam and his wife. It teaches us to beware of the ' deceiving' form of whisperings which iblis employs to make us err and to seduce, tempt and lure us into transgression. But as you said, Allah Subhanah taught us tauba. He prepared us well but will we listen?
May Allah Subhanah guide us all and bless us with His Mercy. Ameen