if a child is adopted by his paternal uncle and aunty.they had brought him up,educated him,gave everything which parents does for their children.the biological parents havenot done anything ,they havent contributed in anything..the adopted child is grown up and still living with his adopted parents,loving and caring them as a child does.but have no concern with his real parents thinking that they havent done anything in his brought up n education etc,now in such case have the biological parents any rights on the adopted child? should he be accountable for their rights as well? kindly clear the rights that in such case what will be the rights of adopted and biological parents.?what will be the responsibilities and duties of an adopted child towards his adopted and biological parents ? had the real/biological parents any rights on him and should he be accountable for their rights on the day of judgement ?
This is the concensors of the shariah law, on adoption. Basically, care for the child as if it is your very own. But know that the name and lineage is of the paternal parents. If you have made a contract of adoption, by the Government laws, the paternal parents have no rights. Regarding Islam, though, i do not know other than what is stated. InshaAllah this helps.
The Most High said :
“….nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons. That is but your saying with your mouths. But Allâh says the truth, and He guides to the (Right) Way.Call them (adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just with Allâh. But if you know not their father’s (names, call them) your brothers in faith and Mawâlîkum (your freed slaves). And there is no sin on you if you make a mistake therein, except in regard to what your hearts deliberately intend. And Allâh is Ever Oft¬Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Al-Ahzab 33:4,5)
Furthermore the Prophet sallallahu alayhe was salaam said :
” Whoever attributes himself to other than his father or ascribes to other than his manumator(the person who frees a slave), then the continuous curse of Allah is upon him”. [Narrated by Abu Daawood.]
a) He terminated inheritance between the adopted and the foster guardian by means of this false son-ship. He made it that each one should be charitable to the other in their lifetimes, and that a deserved share be bequeathed to the other from the deceased that does not exceed a third of his wealth. The Sharee’ah has clarified the laws of inheritance and the deserving heirs in detail without a mention of the adopted or his guardian amongst them. He, the most High, has also mentioned in general those who are to inherit of distant relatives out of kindeness to kin. The Most High said :
“…..And blood relations among each other have closer personal ties in the Decree of Allâh (regarding inheritance) than (the brotherhood of) the believers and the Muhajirûn (emigrants from Makkah, etc.), except that you do kindness to those brothers (when the Prophet Sallallahu alayhe was salaam joined them in brotherhood ties)….”(Al-Ahzab 33:6)
b) Allah has permitted the adopted son to marry the wife of his guardian after his term with her ends and this was forbidden in the pre-Islaamic period. He started with His Messenger in this to be the stronger in its legislation and tougher in terminating the custom of the people of the pre-Islaamic period in forbiddeing this. The Most High said :
“…..So when Zaid had accomplished his desire from her (i.e. divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage, so that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of (the marriage of) the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them (i.e. they have divorced them). And Allâh’s Command must be fulfilled. (Al-Ahzab 33:37)
So the Prophet sallallahu alayhe was salaam married Zaynab Bint Jahsh by the command of Allah after Zayd Ibn Haarithah had divorced her.
a) A person is allowed to call he who is younger than him with the words ” O my son…” in treating him with kindeness , gentleness and making him feel loved, so that he may become friendly and listen to his advise or carry out his need. likewise, it is allowed for a person to call who is older than him with the words “…O my father..” out of respect for him and seeking his compassion in order to recieve his kindness , advise and help. Good manners can spread in the society and relationships between its members can strengthen due to this and all can feel a general feeling of brotherhood in faith.
b) The Sharee’ah has encouraged cooperation in doing good and increasing the fear of Allah . It has been recommended for people from all walks of life to love and treat eachother well. The Most High said : “……Help you one another in Al¬Birr and At¬Taqwa (virtue, righteousness and piety); but do not help one another in sin and transgression. ….. (Al-Ma’idah 5:2)
Also the Prophet sallallahu alayhe was salaam said : ” The similitude of the believers is their love, compassion and kindness between one another is like that of a body, if a limb complains , the rest of the body collapses with fever and restlessness.” [Narrated by Ahmad and Muslim].
He sallallahu alayhe was salaam furthermore said : ” The believers amongst themselves are like a structure, parts of it srengthen others” [Narrated by Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidthee and Nasaaee.]
This includes the caring of orphans, the poor, those unable to work and those whose fathers are unknown by tending , raising, and treating them well. So that society may not contain those who are wretched and neglected for they could afflict the Ummah due to their bad upbringing or rebel for having felt the harshness of society and its neglect. It is upon the Islamic governments to establish centres for the disabled , orphans, abandoned children, those who have no families and those who fall under the rulings of these categories. If the treasury of the government does not suffice the needs of such people, assistance can be sought from the affluent of the Ummah, the Prophet sallallahu alayhe was salaam said :
” Any believer who dies and bequeaths wealth, let his heirs whoever they may be inherit from him, if he bequeaths a debt or loss , then let his creditors refer to me, for I am his sponsor”. [Narrated by Bukhari]
May Allah bless and send peace upon the Messenger , his family, and companions.
The Pemanent Committee [Fataawa Islaamiyyah 4/497] Islamic Fatawa Regarding the Muslim Child pgs 172-175