Let me try to answer your questions. I'm a Muslim convert...and therefore I'm not knowledgeable of everything about Islam. But the questions that you posed I have pondered myself before I converted. So here's my humble attempt at explaining the words that to me have made so much sense. I hope you read with an open mind and a desire to understand and not simply refute what I am saying. I am not looking for an answer from you or a debate...I'm simply trying to tell you the answers I found to your questions. And if you're still not satisfied with them, then you get to keep your opinions.
Q1. In the Quran, Allah (swt) mentions this: "Did I not tell you that I know the unseen in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you conceal?" (Surah 2:34)The knowledge that we have of this world is very limited (as I believe other verses mention as well). Therefore, how do we know that our scientific records are from the very first humans on earth? How do we know there were other types of civilizations before them for example? And how do we know how they lived and how they survived? Allah does say:"Verily, I am going to place generations after generations on earth." (Surah 2:30) You yourself mentioned the era of the dinosaurs...and science today is finding more and more species every day that we were not aware they existed previously. Furthermore, Allah did teach Adam A.S. the names of all things and provided for him both in Heaven, initially, and on Earth after accepting his repentance. And he provided not only for his generation but for other generations to come (e.g. the people in Moses' time), as many other verses reveal. So what I'm trying to say is that we do not have complete knowledge of the past...we only know a fragment...and you can see that in today's science as well, if the Quranic words do not convince you.
Q2. When asked who Allah is, Prophet Muhammad (saw)revealed this verse from Allah: "Say: Allah is the ONE and UNIQUE. He is the one Who needs no one else and who all are in need of. He neither begets nor was He begotten. And there never was and never will be no one compared to Him." (Surah 112) This verse means that whatever human-human relationships we have on Earth cannot be compared to our relationship with God. Allah's love for us is greater than any human love we may experience and the guidance He has sent to us, is for our own benefit. And if we do stray away, the harms we may be causing just to humanity itself (not to mention in front of Allah) can be catastrophic. They cannot be compared to an argument between a father and his son or anything similar to that. The prohibitions are there for a reason, and the Hell punishment is mentioned to remind us of that. All that being said, there are many verses in the Qu'ran and in the Sunnah (the Prophet's sayings and life) that talk about Allah's great mercy on His creation. I'll give you just one proof from the Prophet's sayings. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) reported that the devil said to God: "I shall continue to lead Thy servants astray as long as their spirits are in their bodies." And God replied: "(Then) I shall continue to pardon them as long as they ask for My forgiveness." [Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith 742]. A great number of verses and sayings from the Prophet talk about Allah's forgiveness. His mercy is enormous...and not only that. He is also the best judge. None of us can say who will or will not go to Hell, but those that will...definitely deserve to be there. And I mean I can think myself of numerous examples of people that would deserve the biggest punishment even on Earth...and that no rational human being with a heart would deny it.
Q3&4 For these questions I have to give it to the first brother that answered your post. The Quran is not a book of science and does not talk about that which is irrelevant to the way we should live, like the dinosaurs era. The digital era or the science of today is something far beyond the very basic understanding of the people of those times, when the Quran was revealed. It would make no sense to talk about any of that. However...the scholars that have studied the Quran in depth have found hidden messages in it that could hint at the technological world. Here's an example:
The arguments above might not seem the most convincing when you don't see all the other aspects of the Holy Quran. First...we know it has kept its integrity throughout the times. So whatever it said then, it's still saying it now. There are many scientific proofs in the Quran that the people of those times whould have had no way of knowing. The website I quoted above goes into a ton of them. But some of the most convincing to me are:
1. The body of Pharaon has been preserved way too well for the time it has passed since he died. It's now located in a museum in France to remind the people of his story...just like the Quran mentions. See here:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dxDmbgEdcc
2. Ants being able to talk (like the Quran mentions): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WpVkZEok6tM
As I said, the website quoted above has many more miracles stated, some more or less convincing but all pretty remarcable. With all this in mind, when this book gives so much evidence for all of these things, how can we disagree with it? We may not have all the answers but we have some clear proofs and if we open our hearts to it, we will start seeing them around us more often.
Lastly, I want to leave you with this quote of the Quran:"Verily, those who disbelieve, it is the same to them whether you (O Muhammad) warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe." (Surah 2:6)